Monthly Archives: July 2017

Shadowbox for 7490 Clock

7490 TTL Digital Clock Housing

After a few months of testing ( April – June 2017 ) the 7490 TTL decade counter chip based clock out with the newly added OCXO it was ready to be mounted in a housing.

7490 TTL Clock with OCXO under test
7490 TTL Clock with OCXO under test

Monitoring it against an accurate timebase ( Linux PC with NTP ) while piled up loosely on a small table in the office, it was running good and steady. No flaky counts, no flaky digits that were not lighting or staying lit when they should not be.




Consolidating Power

After the photo was taken above,  the power supplies for the clock were consolidated. Under testing it was powered by 2 wall supplies, 5V for the TTL chips and 12V for the OCXO. For the final version I used a 7805 regulator on the right hand side board to down regulate 12V from a Radio Shack 12V/2.3A power supply to 5V for the TTL chips. I got lucky and spotted the power supply during the last few days that Radio Shack was still in business in April 2017.

Wood Housing

Not having a good set of tools on hand to build a metal housing, a good option was a  wooden one. Micheal’s craft store had both the base that the boards were mounted to and the shadowbox. Both were unfinished and reasonably priced, I believe $5 for the board and $12 for the shadowbox in 2017.

7490 TTL Clock Circuit Board Base
7490 TTL Clock Circuit Board Base
7490 TTL Clock Shadowbox, cover removed
7490 TTL Clock Shadowbox, cover removed. A bit larger than is needed but, it works fine. The glass cover was removed in preparation for sanding and the application of linseed oil.

The base was drilled out to recess fit 10mm standoffs. Holes were drilled for the M3 screws and then countersunk with a larger bit to accommodate the 10mm standoffs. Once again I made out good at the Radio Shack closeout and got a bunch of standoffs.


7490 TTL Clock Mounted on Base
7490 TTL Clock Mounted on Base

The clock mounted on the base in a state of readiness to drop into the shadowbox as a subassembly. This trick is a bit that I learned from working in manufacturing in the past. To make things efficient and serviceable it was common to mount boards on sub assemblies and then mount the subassembly into a piece of machinery.




7490 TTL Clock Mounted in Shadowbox
7490 TTL Clock Mounted in Shadowbox


Finally the subassembly gets dropped into the shadowbox and is held in place by four small wood screws that are on the back.

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7490 TTL Clock Final Housing
7490 TTL Clock, Final Housing



TTL 7490 BCD

7490 TTL decade counter chip in action

While in the process of working on a digital clock that I built in 2007, I had to take another look at how a 7490 decade counter works in order to remind myself. I rigged one up with some LEDs to count 0 to 9, showing the count in BCD form on the LEDs.

The oscillator used to drive the 7490 counter is one stage of a 7414 Schmitt Trigger inverter. Using a 47 microFarad capacitor and a 15K resistor, this gives a slow enough pulse to watch what is going on at a calculated period of 0.588 seconds. It is basically running the 7414 as a relaxation oscillator, charging and discharging the capacitor through the resistor repeatedly. Being an inverter the output of the 7414 will be high when the input is low and vice versa, so it is always either charging or discharging the capacitor. The waveform, even though I don’t have a scope to put on it, at the capacitor must be a sawtooth I imagine.

Circuit Diagram

7414 and 7490 Diagrams: Click on to enlarge

Video of 7490 Counting

The 7490 is both a divide by 2 and a divide by 5 counter. To get a divide by 10, the divide by 2 at Q0 is fed into input B. Outputs Q0,Q1,Q2 and Q4 are weighted by 1,2,4 and 8 respectively. I have the laid out in descending weight from left to right on the board. All set and reset lines are grounded. It will freely run from 0 to 9 and around and around. These lines could be fed into a 7447 7 segment display driver and that would drive digits like a real clock if desired.

The small LED on the left is connected to the output of the 7414 and blinks at the output frequency of it, the jumbo LEDs count from the output of the 7490 and the tiny LED to the right is just strapped from power to ground with a dropping resistor to show that the board is powered. There are also two capacitors 0.1 and a 0.01 microFarad strapped from power to ground to bypass an high frequency switching that appears on the power rails, always a good idea to bypass, this is a good idea on every chip if possible. This eliminates  high frequency noise on the power supply rails. Also grounding unused inputs on the 7414 or any chip that you might use is a good idea to prevent noise and erratic behavior of the circuit.

Powered at 3.5V


The usual 5V power supply was tied up running the TTL Clock I built while testing it, so for this setup I grabbed a 3.5V supply. The TTL circuits seem to run fine at this voltage, the only thing is that the time constant is probably a bit shorter for the capacitor to charge and discharge.

More on the 7414


7490 Clock Article from 2000

I finally found the document that I based the 7490 clock that I built off of. Nothing like the process of moving to uncover lost items. The clock that I built had one main variation in that it did not use the 60Hz from the wall as a frequency reference. Instead it used a series of 7490 chips to divide down from 10 MHz to 1Hz to drive the clock portion. I did this with the foresight that at some point I was going to use a good crystal oscillator such as a TCXO, temperature compensated crystal oscillator or an  OCXO, oven controlled crystal oscillator. These are readily available in 10MHz versions. Another plus is that WWV out of Fort Collins Colorado transmits on 10MHz using a signal derived from a cesium oscillator so the oscillator can be checked and calibrated ( mostly ) against their signal easily by using a shortwave receiver.

Schematics for the version of a 7490 TTL Chip Clock that I built

I was able to scan the original document  and OCR it back to an electronic copy and published the text with the diagrams on this post. The original scan is at the bottom of this post. I downloaded it in 2007 from the How Stuff Works site. Unfortunately the well written article has disappeared from the Internet entirely or I would have just provided a link to it on this site. It has been put it up here for reference for anyone curious or wanted to build a clock out of 7490’s that use a 60Hz input. If this article reappears on-line, I would just link to it. If someone sees it somewhere, please let me know.

Circuit Diagram

Here‘s a circuit diagram tor the power supply and time base.


As we saw in the article on electronic gates,the power supply is the most difficult part.




To create the rest of the clock you will need

  •  At least four 7490 or 74LS90 chips
  • At least two 7447 or 74LSA7 binary to 7—segment converters
  • At least 20 resistors for the LEDs in the 7—segment displays ( 300 ohms would be
  • Some normal LEDs
  • At least two common-anode (CA) 7—segment LED displays (Jameco; part #172088 is
  • Breadboard, wire. etc.






The 7490 is a decade counter. Meaning it is able to count from 0 to 9 cyclically, and
that is its natural mode. That is QA, QB, QC and QD are 4 bits in a binary number, and
these pins cycle through 0 to 9, like this

 0  0  0  0
 0  0  0  1
 0  0  1  0
 0  0  1  1
 0  1  0  0
 0  1  0  1
 0  1  1  0
 0  1  1  1
 1  0  0  1
 1  0  1  0

You can also set the chip up to count up to other maximum numbers and then return to
zero. You “set it up” by changing the wiring of the R01,R02 R91 and R92 iines. If both
R01 AND R02 are 1 ( 5 volts ) an either R91 OR R92 are 0 ( ground ) then the chip will
reset QA, QB, QC and QD to 0. If both R91 and R92 are 1 ( 5 volts ), then the count on
QA, QB, QC and QD goes to 1001 (9). So

To create a divide-by-10 counter, you first connect pin 5 to to +5volts and pin 10
to ground to power the chip. Then you connect pin 12 to pin 1 and ground pins 2,3,6 and
7. Run the input clock signal ( from the timebase or a previous counter ) in on pin 14. The output appears on QA, QB, QC and QD. Use the output on pin 11 to connect to the next stage.

To create a divide-by-6 counter, you first connect pin 5 to to +5volts and pin 10
to ground to power the chip. Then you connect pin 12 to pin 1 and ground pins 6 and
7. Connect pin 2 to pin 9 and pin 3 to pin 8. Run the input clock signal ( from the
timebase or a previous counter ) in on pin 14. The output appears on QA, QB and QC. Use the output on pin 8 to connect to the next stage.

Creating the Second Hand

Knowing all of this, you can easily create the “second hand” of a digital clock. It looks like


In this diagram, the top two 7490s divide the 60-Hz signal from the power supply down by a factor of 60. The third 7490 takes a 1-Hertz signal as input and divides it by 10. Its four outputs drive normal LEDs in this diagram. The fourth 7490 divides the output of the third by 6, and its three outputs drive normal LEDS as well. What you have at this point is a “second hand“ for your clock, with the output of the second hand appearing in binary. If you would like to create a clock that displays the time in binary, then you are set! Here is a view of a breadboard containing a divide-by-10 counter. a divide-by-6 counter and a set of LEDs to display the output of the counters in binary.


Displaying the Time as Numerals

If you want to display the time as numerals, you need to use the 7447. Here is the pinout
of a 7447, as well as the segment labeling for a 7—segment LED.


You connect a 7447 to a 7490 like this

Provide +5 volts on pin 16 and ground on pin 8 to power the 7447 chip
Connect QA, QB, QC and QD from a 7490 to pins 7, 1, 2 and 6 of the 7447,

Connect 330-ohm resistors to pins 13, 12, 11, 10, 9, 15 and 14 o0 the 7447,and
connect these resistors to the a, b, c, d, e, f and g segments oo the 7-segment

Connect the common anode of the 7-segment LED to +5 volts


You will need to have the pinout for the specific LED display that you use so that you
know how to wire the outputs of the 7447 to the LEDs in the 7~segment device. ( Also,
note that the 7448 is equivalent to the 7447 except that it drives common-cathode
displays. Ground the common cathode of the LED in that case.)

V0u can see that by extending the circuit, we can easily create a complete clock. To
create the “minute hand’ section of the clock, all that you need to do is duplicate the
“second hand” portion. To create the “hour hand“ portion, you are going to want to be
creative. Probably the easiest solution is to create a clock that displays military time
Then you Will want to use an AND gate (or the R inputs or the 7490) to recognize the
binary number 24 and use the recognizer to reset the hour counters to zero.

NOTE: You can dispense with the and gate and simply wire the “2” line QB of the
hours-tens counting 7490 and the “4” line ( QC ) of the hours-ones counting 7490 and
connect BOTH to the same reset line (R1 or R2 )respectively on each of the hours 7490s.
In this manner when a 24 count occurs a reset is applied to both R1 and R2 on both hours
chips simultaneously, resulting in a reset to zero for both.

The final piece you need to create is a setting mechanism. On a breadboard, is is easy
to set the clock – just move the input wires to drive higher frequency signals into the
minute-hand section of the clock. In a real clock, you would use pushbuttons or switches
and gates to do the same thing.

If you happen to take your bedside clock or watch apart, one thing you will notice is that
there are probably not 15 TTL ICs inside. In fact, you may not be able to find a chip at all
in most modern clock or watches, all of the functions of the clock (including the alarm
and any other features) are all integrated into one low-power chip (in a watch, the chip
and display together consume only about a millionth of a watt.) That chip is probably
embedded directly into the circuit board. You might be able to see a blob of black plastic
protecting this chip. That one tiny chip contains all of the components we have discussed

Scanned Original Document